Gram Negative Bacteria Information
Gram Negative bacteria are generally considered to be non-beneficial with a pathogen rate of 90 to 95 percent. The name Gram Negative is due to their reaction to the Gram’s Stain test. In this test dyes are used to identify cell wall structure of many different types of bacterias. The Gram Negative types of bacteria do not naturally hold the violet color dyes, and only hold the pink or red dyes with the use of a counterstain chemical.
Many different species exist and include the following: Cyanabacteria, Green-Sulphur and Green Non-Sulphur Bacteria, Spirochaetes, and the proteobacteria group (Salmonella, E. coli, and others). In addition, the two causes of the clinical condition known as rat bite fever, Streptobacillus moniliformis and Spirillum minus, are classified as Gram Negative. Streptobacillus moniliformis is the source behind most North American instances of the condition, while Spirillum minus accounts for most of the cases originating in Asia.
Rat bite fever is most commonly reported in areas with large rat populations. These areas can be urban impoverished areas, rural communities, and laboratory settings. As implied by the name, most cases are caused by rat bites or scratches. However, other animals such as squirrels, dogs, mice, and cats are known to carry the necessary bacterias. Additionally, infection can be caused by the ingestion of liquids or food that has been contaminated by rat feces. One instance of this was a 1926 outbreak of the condition in Massachusetts where 86 people were infected due to contaminated milk. Once infected, the initial stages are asymptomatic. After two weeks, sudden fever, nausea, chills, and headaches may be experienced. These symptoms can be accompanied by a rash on a patient’s palms or feet soles. The immune system is usually capable of dealing with the Gram Negative infection, but if the condition remains untreated, then the symptoms may reappear weeks or months after initial detection.
Diagnosis of rat bite fever can be typically difficult as the Streptobacillus strain needs to be cultured on enriched media and the Spirillum strain does not proliferate on cultured media. However, after detection, a fairly simply remedy is available. For treatment of this ailment, Gram Negative antibiotics are most commonly used. This type of bacteria is resistant to many types of antibiotics, but penicillin has proven to be effective. The patient with the condition will undergo a 10 to 14 day program of Gram Negative antibiotics accompanied by tetanus prophylaxis.
While a Gram Negative infection can lead to fatality in some cases, there are different treatment techniques to control the condition. If a patient has been bitten by a rat or feels that they may have contracted rat bite fever, a local physician should be contacted immediately to stop any further complications resulting from Gram Negative bacteria.
Another ailments Vertigo Symptoms